Publications by Katherine Carter

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The Price of the Recession: Social Resilience and National Resilience

Published April 3, 2014 | By Katherine Carter
 
The Failed States Index (FSI) uses political, economic, and economic indicators to determine the relative stability of a nation state and its resilience to potential unrest. The FSI examines how successfully states maintain legitimacy and cohesion in the face of internal or external pressures, but does not speak to how social trends in particular countries change in response to those pressures. In contrast to national resilience, social resilience refers to a community’s capacity to adapt and cope with significant adversity and to prepare for future challenges. As a ranking of states’ fragility, the indicators used in the FSI enable us to track countries’ progress from year to year, but do not easily convey the human cost of instability and how societies cope with instability on an emotional level.

Human Rights & Business Roundtable Annual Report 2013

Published January 13, 2014 | By J. J. Messner*

Launched in 1996, the Roundtable was the first forum designed for multinational businesses and mainstream human rights organizations to discuss issues of common concern in an atmosphere of mutual respect, trust, and confidentiality. Today, the Roundtable focuses exclusively on the extractive industry, although the lessons learned and case studies of the Roundtable provide value to all sectors. The Roundtable is an invaluable resource for corporations and NGOs to work together to promote sustainable development.

Conflict Bulletin: Adamawa State - January 2014

Published January 10, 2014 | By Patricia Taft*

Formed in 1991, Adamawa is one of the largest states in Nigeria. Located in the country’s northeast, it borders Cameroon to the east, Borno state to the north, Gombe state to the west, and Taraba state to the south. Its position makes it a key corridor between Borno, a hub of Boko Haram activity, and other states. Its population of about 3.5 million are mainly made up of farmers and cattle herders. The economy is predominately agriculture, although the state also has some mineral wealth. Common crops include maize, millet, sorghum, rice, yams, and cassava. Cotton and groundnuts are also produced as cash crops.

Liberia’s Political Wildcard: A Profile of Mary “General” Broh

Published November 26, 2013 | By Katherine Carter
 
Ten years into recovery from a horrific civil war, Liberia’s political leadership is often held up as a model of gender equality in West Africa. Elected in 2006, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf is one of only two female African heads of state – President Joyce Banda of Malawi being the other. In 2011, President Sirleaf won the Nobel Peace Prize alongside another Liberian politician, Leymah Gbowee, for advancing women’s rights to participate peace-building work. In keeping with the recent tradition of having strong female peacemakers as politicians and heads-of-state, Sirleaf’s long-time friend and close political ally, Mary Tanyonoh Broh, seems poised to become Liberia’s next political magnate.

Conflict Bulletin: Edo State - November 2013

Published November 14, 2013 | By Nate Haken*

Edo state is in the south of Nigeria, located next to Delta and Ondo states in the Niger Delta region. It has a total population of about 3.2 million people, according to current estimates. The primary ethnic groups are the Edos, Bini, Owan, Esan, and Afemai, among others. There are 18 Local Government Areas in the state. Benin City is the state capital city located in the Oredo Local Government Area (LGA), with a population of approximately 1.15 million. Edo’s state governor, Adams Aliyu Oshiomhole was formerly a labor leader. He assumed office in November 2008 after winning an appeal in the 2007 elections, which had initially declared Oserheimen Osunbor to be the governor. In July of 2012, Oshiomhole was reelected for a second term in a landslide victory. Oshiomhole is one of six governors affiliated with the Action Congress of Nigeria Party (ACN).

Idle Hands May be the Devil’s Work: Youth Unemployment and Stability

Published November 8, 2013 | By Katherine Carter
 
Reports frequently cite fragile states (in particular, those in North Africa and the Middle East) as areas susceptible to a breakdown in social cohesion and security when unemployment rises. Disenchanted young citizens initiated the revolts of the Arab Spring in 2011, as both a protest against political oppression and lack of economic opportunity. Such reactions were not confined to the Arab world -- that same year, British unions staged anti-austerity protests throughout the year and riots broke out in the summer; in New York, the Occupy Wall Street movement erupted in the autumn and spread to other cities; and in Greece, riots occurred in the summers of 2010, 2011 and 2012 against austerity measures and rising unemployment. Specific incidents sparked the majority of these protests, but economic stress remained a major underlying cause of tension.

Conflict Bulletin: Imo State - October 2013

Published October 24, 2013 | By Nate Haken*

Imo state has a population of approximately 3.9 million people, according to the 2006 census. The population of Imo state is predominantly Igbo (98%). The capital city of Owerri is the largest in the state. Imo is made up of twenty-seven Local Government Areas (LGAs). Imo’s economy mainly consists of exporting natural resources such as palm oil, mahogany, crude oil, and natural gas. Because of the high population density and the issue of over-farming, the quality of the soil is worsening.

Is Youth Bulge a Crucial Determinant of Stability?

Published October 10, 2013 | By Katherine Carter
 
Today approximately 44 percent of the world’s 7.2 billion people are under 24 years old - and 26 percent are under 14. Of those 7.2 billion people, a staggering 82 percent live in less developed regions of the world – primarily sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Currently, the global median age is 29.2 years old, a sharp contrast to Europe, for example, where the median age is 41. This population phenomenon, called “youth bulge,” is especially prevalent in fragile states and Africa.

Conflict Bulletin: Ondo State - September 2013

Published September 30, 2013 | By Nate Haken*

Ondo has a population of around 3.44 million people according to the most recent census (2006). The majority are of Yoruba descent, with a sizable minority of those from Ijaw subgroups, particularly along the coast. Ondo derives most of its revenue from the production of cocoa, palm oil, rubber, lumber, and cassava. Approximately 65% of the labor force is employed in the agrarian sector. The state is also rich in oil and minerals.

Conflict Bulletin: Bayelsa State - September 2013

Published September 30, 2013 | By Nate Haken*

With 1.7 million people, Bayelsa is one of the smallest states in the country, by population. Most are of Ijaw descent. Bayelsa produces between 30-40% of Nigeria’s oil and gas. In addition to the petroleum sector, the state also has an extensive commercial fishing industry and produces oil palm, raffia palm, rubber, and coconut. In February 2012, Henry Dickson (PDP) was elected as governor after a period of uncertainty in the wake of Governor Timipre Sylva’s termination in January 2012.

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